The forthcoming Rio+20 deliberations challenge us to revise the current paradigm of development and propose a path hereafter taking into account serious considerations which necessitate the vision, formulation and adoption of a long-term approach for the 21st century. The interrelatedness and interdependence of the three basic components of sustainable development - economic, social and environmental – have never been stronger than now as we address the key challenges of durable peace, eradication of poverty and human advancement while efficiently managing increasingly scarce natural resources. These are compounded by threats arising from alarming consequences of climate change arising from irrational and indiscriminate use of the Earth’s limited resources.
We are concerned, in the economic sphere, with the growing disproportionate rate of growth and gap in per capita income level between poor and rich countries being 78 times since 1985, compared to 52 in the past. In the environmental field, in the last 20 years, the CO2 emissions have increased by 30% and in 2010, the global temperature rise reached the crucial mark of over 20C. In the energy sector, the gap between countries with low income and income per-capita average level has increased eight times. These crises are mutually resounding, and so we advocate for equity in development and the use of resources. The current high CO2 emissions are due to the quality and structure of the energy sources used and so the depletion of hydro energy sources is as grave a problem as environmental pollution. It is reasonable to solve both problems in an integrated manner focusing on new organization of energy generation and use which would also lead to the reduction of CO2 emissions and global temperature fall.
Energy is the driver for sustainable development in both the developed and developing countries with an ever increasing demand for it to be accessible, reliable, affordable and universally available for the needs of the teeming millions of the world to emerge out of poverty, share and participate in the world’s collective progress. At the same time, the stark reality of eroding our natural and ecological resources is a sobering fact propelling the globe to disaster.
Foreseeing that urgency, to proceed blindly would only spell disaster, and so Kazakhstan together with several other countries worked on a rigorous, and scientific study on the energy-ecological balance with precise estimates of present levels of consumption with projections for the future with very grim prospects if its use by humankind went unbridled. More than 300 of the most esteemed scientists worked on projections of the energy-ecological resources drawing from an analysis of 50 UN documents and the conclusions have tallied independently with the findings of the UN system and other scientific bodies around the world. This multi-year study provides some breakthrough statistics of immense value to the United Nations and the international community, which become even more significant with the current population of 7 billion soon reaching astounding figures by 2050. The study comprises projections for the year 2030, 2050 and 2100 when the population is expected to reach 10 billion.
Recognizing the urgency of the issue, we see an opportunity for taking concrete action as follows: energy development, including primary sources used in human forms of energy delivering it to end users and, at the same time, not leading to deterioration of the environment. It must be accompanied by the restoration of already imbalanced components of the environment, including, air, water, land, flora and fauna. The efficient use of primary energy sources is vital for development in which all states can participate fairly. The most prudent approach is to have energy development based on a combination of available non-renewable and renewable primary energy.
Every country has the right to energy sufficiency achieved by sustainable patterns of energy consumption and production, as well as affordable energy for all countries and optimization of energy systems under the purview of the United Nations. We are aware that coal reserves available to non-renewable carbon energy should be conserved through the development of recovery technologies for remote oil and natural gas development under environmentally sound methods of oil shale and tar sands and coal. Renewable energy, whether from land, solar, wind, or water, can be developed without disturbing the natural balance of each region of the world. We would have enough if resources for future generations were rationally used.
New, reliable, clean and affordable technologies can be applied that result in significant energy efficiency gains in consumption and production at both the consumer and industrial levels in the efficient extraction and delivery of primary resources, or through power generation capacity and transportation to the final user.
So what does this mean? It means the creation of a global energy-ecological system supported by the United Nations and the world community as a collective responsibility with scientifically based standards and rules for the use of renewable energy; a global system of planning the use of oil, gas, new carbon energy resources, and wherever possible, to switch to renewable energy, especially by developed countries; and for the efficient use of land, bio, hydro or solar sources, with an exchange of expertise and transfer of technology.
The development of a balanced approach between the economic, environmental and energy parameters at the national, regional and global levels is also vital, at the same time acknowledging that social well-being and growth, in particular, in developing countries are also built on sustained growth in manufacturing and related sectors to create wealth, while encouraging business and industry to contribute to green job creation.
Consideration must be given to all countries: developed, developing, especially the LDCs, LLDCs, SIDS, PSIDA and Africa, as well as, those in transition, for each of whom special factors will have to be considered. It is acknowledged that some countries will need an accelerated energy development to keep pace with their economic development, and that energy, food and water security are interrelated.
It is important that individual countries pursue their track of national development, but in accordance with a global vision, benchmarks and scientific standards through a collectively agreed upon strategy.
Collaboration is also imperative between the United Nations, the global financial institutions, exporters of traditional energy and their recipients of traditional energy sources, which are striving to make them effective, accessible and affordable. Collaboration with scientists offering new ways to generate and use energy, together with inputs from educational institutions, is imperative.
Unless this is done, the issue of gradually diminishing availability of energy resources and the universally accepted understanding that every country will inevitably encounter energy problems, will severely impede human development.
The main issue of eradicating poverty by reaching an optimum level for the needs of all countries in energy and other natural resources by some more or less target date, for which we believe that 2050 would be a reasonable one. There is a need for collective action that coordinates efforts between various stakeholders through public-private partnerships. This must include engagement by the private sector, ranging from small and medium enterprises to large multinational corporations, and civil society, particularly within the scientific, academic and youth communities. A global energy-ecological strategy would take care of these considerations.
The Strategy is also socially responsible and economically sustainable, giving high priority to the empowerment of people, the Millennium Development Goals, the safety and protection of the vulnerable and the active engagement of women and youth in these processes, which were the legitimate concerns expressed by Member States and the United Nations system and civil society at the various deliberations in New York. Overall, the Strategy would address issues commonly expressed by Member States in the fields of poverty reduction, education, job creation and employment, sharing technology and new research, infrastructure and transportation development, among others.
The Strategy answers the calls of Member States that the zero draft be more specific with defined goals, steps and mechanisms. The Strategy is forward-looking with long terms objectives and practical concrete actions delineated in all three pillars of sustainable development. It also involves public-private sector and local community partnerships.
The working name of the Strategy is “Global Energy-Ecological Strategy for Sustainable Development” but it can be given any other name that the Member States decide upon.
At the same time, the proposed Strategy should not to be isolated from other approaches and ideas. They should all be considered on the basis of their comparative advantages, complementarity and synergy - all of which ultimately point to the same goal. There have been excellent ideas and recommendation but they could all be lost if there was no reference to a strategic plan reflected in the zero draft to be finally incorporated into the Outcome Document of Rio+20 so as to collate these valuable ideas together and find ways of implementing them.
Taking into account the need to further develop approaches to meet the needs of humankind, Kazakhstan submits for your serious consideration that the acknowledgement of the necessity of the Global Energy-Ecological Strategy for Sustainable Development (or whatever nomenclature is given to the Strategy upon consultations) is duly reflected in the Rio+20 Outcome Document. At this stage, we need only the idea of an implementation strategy mentioned in the Outcome Document, which would provide a solid basis for further elaboration in the post Rio+20 follow-up phase.
We would like to assure you that this is not a national strategy that Kazakhstan wishes to interject into the Outcome Document but that the definition, planning and implementation of the strategy, after Rio+20, will be a collective ownership of the international community, as an intergovernmental process with the United Nations system, private sector, and representatives of civil society.
As recent findings and the report of the Secretary-General’s Expert Group have shown, the course of post-2015 development is very much dependent on decisions of Rio+20. This is a critical turning point in human history and how we shape our future depends on the decisions taken in June in Brazil
We are therefore seeking your Government’s valuable support in promoting the notion of the Global Energy-Ecological Strategy as we work jointly on the draft Outcome Document of the Conference. We trust that you will give due consideration so that our collective effort takes us towards a safe and secure world.
National Proposal of the Republic of Kazakhstan for RIO+20
“Time of Radical Strategic Decisions”
The waves of global crisis that have covered the Planet since the beginning of this millennium are becoming an evident need in joint efforts in searching new ways for common survival and prosperity.
In spite of the declared adherence to the principles of sustainable development and undertaken measures the disproportion of the development continues growing:
· in the economic field the gap in the level of economic development between the countries are becoming greater (since 1985 the gaps in the income level per capita between poor and rich countries have become greater by 78 times compared to 52 in the past);
· in relation to the environment natural disaster events are becoming more frequent and greenhouse gasses emissions are growing (for the period of 20 years CO2 emissions have increased by 30% and in 2010 the global temperature raise approached a critical mark of over 2°C);
· in the energy sector the gap between the groups of the countries with low income and income per capita below the average level in relation to energy consumption per capita has 8 times increased, and in relation to oil consumption up to 6 times.
In the period from 1970 to 2009 six economic crises directly or indirectly related to energy reasons and, as effect, to growing gaps have occurred in the world.
These crisis events, mutually resounding and becoming greater as a result of that have questioned the readiness of the society to solve the tasks successfully in relation to both strategic and mid-term plans. So, the whole system of global community relations is facing great shocks and new challenges, which should be responded in an adequate manner.
It is absolutely clear that separate countries and regions would not cope with current global problems by their own, and considering that, year 2012 was declared as the "International Year of Sustainable Energy for Everyone" according to the Resolution 65/151 of the UN General Assembly dated February16, 2011.
From its side Kazakhstan addressing the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly in September 2011, proposed to develop and discuss the Global Energy and Environment Strategy and the large-scale Green Bridge environmental initiative at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development.
2. GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY
The Global Energy and Environment Strategy should be considered as a system of actions for solution of the most urgent geoeconomical and geopolitical problems related to securing resources for countries and civilization, as well as the conditions for long-term climatic stability in the world. It may become the first step to the development of a common global strategy, which will be focused on the challenges for the world community.
The current international documents on global climate change management basically specify CO2 emissions and global temperature raise. But these are effects, and their cause is in the quality and structure of used energy sources. Presently, exactly this process of energy generation and use is the main source of CO2 emissions and global temperature raise. Forecasted depletion of hydrocarbon energy sources by the middle of XXI century currently is not a less challenge for the mankind than environmental pollution.
It is reasonable to solve both problems in an integrated manner focusing on new organization of energy generation and use that would lead to the reduction of CO2 emissions and global temperature fall.
Under the "Global Energy and Environment Strategy for Sustainable Development for XXI” proposed by Kazakhstan the global prospect on its long-term sustainable development was designed by the scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, Germany, China and other countries on the basis of the dynamics of civilization’s development with clear definition of required parameters for the future. "Energy-environment-economical" balance in relation to countries and regions was identified and recommendations on the transition to the new process of energy generation and use to secure cost-effective way of prospected parameters achievement for each country were developed.
It should be emphasized that in the world there is a variety of political initiatives, and such an approach will become feasible basing on them.
The Global Energy and Environment Strategy is actual, first of all, in the light of the initiative of the Secretary General of the United Nations Organization Mr. Pan Ki-moon on "Sustainable Energy for Everyone", and the UN declaring year 2012 the "International Year for Sustainable Energy for Everyone".
Also the priorities declared by the UNEP, including climate, disaster and conflict reduction and efficient resources use - sustainable consumption and production should be noted. Extremely important are the initiatives on the creation of the world oil-and-gas bank, support of the initiative on "Global Village" Energy partnership” for African countries southward of Sahara by developed countries, efforts of the UNEP, MAGATE, UNESCO, UNIDO, the World Bank and a variety of other structures in the field of training specialists in underdeveloped countries, and a variety of other initiatives.
Based on these initiatives and achievements in the field of science and technology, coming from the analysis of social-economic, ecological, natural-resource and energy dynamics of world development for the last 20 years, considering the forecasts of the United Nations Organization and major expert organizations, a draft “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" has been prepared by the Republic of Kazakhstan.
In relation to energy the goal of the “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" is the achievement by the middle of XXI century an optimum level to meet the demand of all countries of the Planet in energy and other natural resources, including the following objectives for definite periods:
· every decade – determining of primary energy sources sufficient for each country and defining the technology on the achievement of national development targets for the next decade.
· since 2020 – reserving carbon primary energy sources for future generations introducing renewable energy sources.
· by 2050 reduction of energy intensity of the world gross product unit not less, than by 2 times, and creation of conditions for further maintenance of this energy intensity.
· by 2070 creation of the stock of non-renewable energy resources and achievement of triple balance “energy-economy-environment” .
· by 2100 achievement of a technological level of energy sufficient for each country to secure high index value of human potential.
At present, there is no any international body authorized and responsible for the regulation of global technological development. Certainly, such organizations, as the UNDP, UNIDO, regional associations of Europe, countries of Africa and the Pacific region are realizing their activity and achieving certain success within their own mandates. However, their authority is insufficient for the achievement of significant global breakout, since such activity should be strengthened in all directions of technological development, so Kazakhstan proposes the world community to establish the “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" envisaging solution of these problems.
3. “GREEN BRIDGE” PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME
The Astana "Green Bridge" Initiative was adopted by the countries of Asia and the Pacific at the 6th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Astana city in 2010. The overarching goal of the Astana "Green Bridge" Initiative is the development of partnership with "green" business and creation of environment for introduction of "green" technology and investment.
The Programme implies joint actions of states, international, non-governmental and scientific organizations and business on creation or development of new green business sectors through implementation of investment projects and reforming of policies, economic and market instruments.
The main approach is practical, long-term and systematic assistance to countries and any organization concerned in attraction of green investment and best available experience and management practices transfer.
The Green Bridge Partnership Programme does not substitute and does not duplicate any other current processes or programs. The objective of the "Bridge" is the relationship between many processes and creation of the partnership of a new level - not only between countries and regions, but also between real economy sectors and businesses, filling existing gaps in short-term or fragmentary actions.
A number of practical measures on the creation of environment and the infrastructure to broaden access to green technologies and innovations for all concerned countries and organizations are envisaged under the Programme. Under the "Green Bridge" Partnership Programme the activity is implemented in two directions: on the one side there are "green technologies", on the other side there are "green goods" produced using these technologies, and ecosystem services required for global sustainability.
The structure of the Programme comprises standard components: targets, main activity areas, a management mechanism, expected results, as well as a statement on partnership.
Principles of the Programme:
• The leading role of the state,
• A long-term approach,
• Participation of all stakeholders,
• Integration and synergy with existing processes and initiatives,
• Efficient management by the Programme,
• Maximum focus on practical results.
The leading role of the state is very important for the creation of favorable framework conditions for the green economy and technology. The Programme will provide for countries adapted recommendations based on successful practices of developed and other countries.
Main activity areas of the Programme:
1. Management: national and international. Best management practices and examples, legislation and available experience will be delivered to concerned countries and organizations, as well as practical assistance in use of them will be provided.
2. Information infrastructure, education. There are great opportunities beginning from the opportunities to receive basic information on green economy and practices of other countries to Internet-TV and remote training programs and courses.
3. The Green business and technologies. Assistance in obtaining available information on best green technology, examples of green business support through administrative and market mechanisms, online consultations of recognized experts in specific technology, equipment and other practical issues.
4. Financial and economical mechanisms. Great opportunities for sharing available experience in tariff and tax reforms, introduction of mechanisms on payment for ecosystem services, greening of state procurements and others will be used.
5. Standards for green economy. Examples and experience adapted for governments, practical assistance in reforming standards systems will allow creating predictable and incentive basis for green business.
The Programme also includes sectorial priorities:
1. Conservation of mountain, water and other ecosystems,
2. Sustainable energy, its accessibility and efficiency,
3. Food safety,
4. Urban infrastructure and transport,
5. Adaptation to climate change and natural disasters.
On each sector, available legislation, international and national programs and projects, as well as the most efficient instruments and policies will be collected and analyzed. All that will be available for countries and organization in local languages. Partner's projects between countries and business on greening these sectors will be supported. This will allow making the efforts of countries in the transition to green economy much easier, and creating the basis for joint actions in future.
A standard management structure including the Governing Board and the Secretariat was proposed by the Programme.
The Governing Board will include 12 members on rotary basis, from the representatives of the regions, state and business sectors, international and non-governmental organizations. More detailed procedures and rules will be worked out in the course of consultations under the direction of the Temporary Governing Board in the first year of activity - along with other required documents and procedures.
The Secretariat will be also established on the basis of open international contest and should have international legal basis with required privileges and immunities. Kazakhstan, as a hosting party, can provide a required support to the work of the Secretariat by means of providing of building and other work conditions.
Financial sources for the Programme.
The Program will be based on self-financing through implementation of investment and business-projects. A part of funds from future and cost-effective state- supported green projects, particularly, in such sectors as energy efficiency, resource saving and others, should be used to support general management of the programme and the activity of its working bodies, as well as to support the activity in such areas as education, strengthening the capacity and others. Initial assistance will be required to start the Programme. Kazakhstan, as an initiator, which has already contributed to the development of the Programme and to financing of two regional Conferences for Europe, Asia and the Pacific, will also contribute to this important initiative. But in addition to this strong partners having experience and for confidential purposes are needed.
To undertake practical steps a Roadmap with more detailed schedule for the 1st year of work - with the development of all required basic documents and mechanisms was proposed.
The area of activity of the Programme is rather extensive: this is 3/4 of the population of the Planet, nearly 90% of greenhouse gasses emissions, the most important ecosystems and energy and natural resources. That is to say the opportunities for new technologies, application of best and successful practices, creation and development of new markets of green goods and services are rather great. And there are no problems with such broad coverage and participation, since after all using modern information systems and technology currently allows sharing successful experience available in many countries, delivering best practices and documents to any number of stakeholders - without delay and barriers. A special section - informational infrastructure to support green economy is envisaged under the Programme for that.
So, the Republic of Kazakhstan proposes the Green Bridge Partnership Program as one of the final documents of Rio+20.
4. PROPOSALS OF KAZAKHSTAN FOR RIO+20 FINAL DECISIONS
To approve the concept on the “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" proposed by the Republic of Kazakhstan as a scientifically justified and innovation approach required to overcome global crisis and secure sustainable energy for everyone.
To approve the "Green Bridge" Partnership Programme supported at the regional conferences of ESCAP (2010) and UNECE (2011), as a practical mechanism based on voluntary participation for the transition to green economy.
We would like to invite governments, international financial institutions, the private sector and other concerned parties to join the Kazakhstan initiatives to promote environmentally sustainable, equitable and prospering future.
5. DIFFERENCES AND ADDED VALUE OF KAZAKHSTAN INITIATIVES
Global Energy and Environment Strategy.
1) The project on the “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" proposed by Kazakhstan is science-based and was designed on the basis of calculations for a long-term prospect (till 2100) to achieve economic well-being for all countries and regions within environmental limits of the Planet and without damage to globally significant ecosystems.
2) Within the framework of the Strategy on the basis of the dynamics of civilization development a global long-term prospect for its sustainable development, with clear definition of the parameters required in the future, was developed by scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, Germany, China and the other countries.
3) The proposed draft "Strategy" includes "energy-environment-economical" balance in relation to countries and regions and recommendations on the transition to the new process of energy generation and use to secure cost-effective way of prospected parameters achievement for each country.
4) 14 tasks based on the initiatives of the United Nations Organization and interstate associations, through fulfillment of which the required environmentally safe energy flow will be secured the for the civilization, are specified in the Strategy.
The proposal on the "Green Bridge" Partnership.
1) The "Green Bridge" Programme is a regional and global significant practical mechanism on the transition to "green economy". This is a document with a completed structure, specifying clear objectives, tasks, principles, activity priorities, management and financial system of the Programme, as well as a roadmap for the nearest 10 years.
2) The Programme is designed for the support of "green" projects in countries with any level of economic development on voluntary basis.
3) The Program envisages simple, practical and efficient measures for experience sharing and broadening access to green investments and innovations for all concerned countries and organizations.
4) The "Green Bridge" Partnership Program envisages equal participation in the management not only for the state, but also for business, international, non-governmental and scientific organizations.
5) The "Green Bridge" Partnership Programme is based on the relationship with real economy sectors and business-projects that may result in a multiplicative and mutually beneficial effect and the opportunity for all partners for practical realization of instruments previously designed by them.
6) The Green Bridge Partnership Programme proposes brand new mechanisms for conservation and reconstruction of globally significant ecosystems, on the basis of green business concerned in the support of ecosystem services.
7) The Green Bridge Partnership Programme creates a stronger basis and greater opportunities for green business-projects and green markets (goods and services) due to its regional and international status and reduces the risks for potential investor.
The present XXI century is an epoch of strengthening integration of civilizations, their dialogue and partnership for solution of emerging global problems faced by the mankind.
It may be stated definitely that the modern world of the beginning of XXI century is a world of local civilizations demonstrating their spatial variety of historical heritage and modern being of the mankind.
In the period not later than the middle of the century the gap in economical parameters between counties should be reduced to the extent allowing all states having an opportunity for securing a high level of human potential development.
This is a very difficult task; it is connected with considerable growth of the world gross product and solution of major tasks both on the global level and, what is particularly difficult, in each country.
The number of these tasks includes redistribution of major industry facilities, insuring of food sufficiency and solution of the global problem related to securing available drinking water.
The implementation of the “Global Energy and Environment Strategy on Sustainable Development for XXI" should allow ensuring the required environmentally safe energy flow for that, securing through it the achievement of the UN goals on sustainable energy for everyone.
The Green Bridge Partnership Programme proposed by Kazakhstan is a practical mechanism on cooperation between countries, the private sector and organizations for the transition to green economy. There are a sufficient number of successful examples on such cooperation in the past and present, and currently only the will of the world community, of all civilizations is needed.