Kazakhstan is situated in Central Asia, deep in the Eurasian continent.Its territory is as large as 2,724,900 sq km (i.e. 1,049,150 sq miles). In terms of the area it is the second largest among the CIS states. It occupies the ninth place in the world according to its square after Russia, China, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India and Australia. In fact the territory of Kazakhstan exceeds that occupied by twelve countries of the European Union.
Kazakhstan borders upon the following states: China- 1.460 km - long border; Kyrgyzstan - 980 km; Turkmenistan - 380 km; Uzbekistan - 2.300 km; the Russian Federation - 6.467 km. Total length of borders amounts to 12.187 km.
The territory of the Republic stretches on from the low reaches of the Volga in the West to the foothills of the Altai mountains in the East - for some 3,000 km ( a distance that spans two time zones), from West Siberian lowland in the North to the desert of Kyzylkum and the mountain range of Tien Shan in the South for some 2,000 km.The population numbers some 15,074,2 thousands people. Population density is as high as 5,5 people per 1 sq km. The capital is the city of Astana (since December 10, 1997) whose population is as large as 528,000 people. Administratively Kazakhstan is comprised of 14 regions, 84 cities of which 39 refer to those of Republican and regional subordination, 159 districts, 241 settlements, 2,042 aul (rural) counties. In terms of the number of the population cities of Kazakhstan may be subdivided into several categories:
The northernmost point in Kazakhstan - 55'26'' NL - corresponds to the southern latitude of the central part of the East-European plain and to the southern part of the British Isles (the latitude of Moscow). As to the southernmost point - 40'56'' NL - it corresponds to latitudes of Transcaucasis and Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe (the latitude of Madrid, Istanbul and Baku).
Territory of Kazakhstan has come to be mastered by man nearly a million years ago. As early as the age of Lower Paleolith the ancient man settled down on these Karatau lands fit for normal life, rich with game and wild fruit. It is there that they have found ancient settlements of Stone Age. By and by, in the centuries of Middle and Upper Paleolith the man came to master Central and Eastern Kazakhstan and Mangyshlak area.
As have been shown by excavations of the Neolithic settlement Botay in the North Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan constitutes the area of horse-mastering (breeding) and that of formation of nomad civilizations. Archeologists revealed dwellings, numerous hand-made articles of stone and ivory which present the ancient history and archeology of Kazakhstan in the Stone epoch in an altogether new way.
As early as the Bronze Age, some four millenia ago, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes of the so called Andron and Begazy-Dandybay culture. They were engaged in farming and cattle-breeding, they were fine warriors who handled combat chariots marvelously. To this day we can see images of chariots drawn on rocks where ancient people would arrange their tribal temples and sanctuaries with the firmament as their natural cover. On the surfaces of black cliffs burnt with the sun people would chisel out scenes of dances, images of sun-headed deities, mighty camels and bulls as impersonations of ancient gods.
Burial mounds of noble warriors scattered all throughout Kazakh steppes are known for magnificent size of mounds and burial vaults proper. Particularly famous are such necropolis in the steppes of Sary-Arka and Tagiskent in the Transaral area. People of that epoch were not only fine warriors, shepherds and farmers but also skilled metallurgists. They would take bronze and manufacture axes, knives, daggers and various decorations thereof.
The climate of the country is sharply continental. Average temperature in January varies within - 19° - - 4° C while average July temperature fluctuates within + 19° - + 26° C. The lowest temperature in winter may go down to - 45° C with the highest one in summer + 30° C.
• those having 300-400 thou. residents (Karagandy, Shymkent, Pavlodar, Taraz, Ust-Kamenogorsk);
• those with 200-280 thou. residents (Uralsk, Temirtau, Kostanay, Aktobe, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk);
• those with 110-160 thousand residents (Zhezkazgan, Yekibastuz, Kyzylorda, Aktau, Kokshetau, Atyrau).
Day of the Republic (October, 25)
October 25, 1990 is a special date for the citizens of Kazakhstan. it symbolizes the end of old history of the country and the beginning of a new one. Adoption on October 25, 1990 “Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Republic of Kazakhstan” by the highest representative body of the republic became a turning point in Kazakhstan’s development. Further development of events led that the text of the document became the first fundamental legislative act. The life has showed that greatness of the Declaration as a legal, political and ideological document is that it expresses non-transient principles completely meeting the realities of human existence. That main of them are human rights and freedoms protection, diversity of forms of ownership, political plurality, division of powers, they became the base and were developed in the Constitution of the country.
Independence Day (December, 16)
Kazakhstan legalized its right to be a subject of law on December 16, 1991 adopting the Constitutional Law “On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan”.